But the almost tenfold increase in atmospheric C14 that peaked around the mid-1960s has been followed by a rapid decline since the nuclear test ban treaties and the cessation of high-yield, above-ground nuclear tests.In fact, C14 is assimilated so rapidly that from about 1963, its half-life in the atmosphere has only been about 11 years.Understanding how the pituitary gland forms and how each hormone producing cell type is specified provides critical insight into the central role the pituitary gland plays in vertebrate physiology. Orciani M, Davis S, Appolloni G, Lazzarini R, Mattioli-Belmonte M, Ricciuti RA, Boscaro M, Di Primio R, Arnaldi G. Isolation and characterization of progenitor mesenchymal cells in human pituitary tumors. Research in my lab is focused on determining the molecular mechanisms of pituitary gland organogenesis. Xie, H, Hoffmann HM, Meadows JD, Mayo SL, Trang C, Leming SS, Maruggi C, Davis SW, Larder R, Mellon PL. Homeodomain Proteins Six3 and Six6 Regulate Gonadotrope-specific Genes During Pituitary Development. methodologies in rat and mouse retina, we have demonstrated that there are distinct waves of genesis of the two major bipolar cell types, with cone bipolar genesis preceding rod bipolar genesis.These waves of bipolar genesis correspond to the order of genesis of the presynaptic photoreceptor cell types. The adult retina contains a complement of well-characterized neurons and glia in three cellular layers (outer nuclear, inner nuclear and ganglion cell layers) separated by two distinct plexiform layers (the inner and outer plexiform layers) containing cellular processes and synapses .As a consequence, lesions in genes involved in pituitary development that result in multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD) can have profound effects on multiple physiological processes. Davis, SW; Castinetti, F; Carvalho, LR; Ellsworth, BS; Potok, MA; Lyons, RH; Brinkmeier, ML; Raetzman, LT; Carninci, P; Mortensen, AH; Hayashizaki, Y; Arnhold, IJP; Mendonca, BB; Brue, T; Camper, SA. Molecular mechanisms of pituitary organogenesis: in search of novel regulatory genes.
Mice containing null mutations in Prop1 also display a similar phenotype (Davis et al 2010). Davis, SW; Ellsworth, BS; Peréz-Millan, MI; Gergics, P; Schade, V; Foyouzi, N; Brinkmeier, ML; Mortensen, AH; Camper, SA. Pituitary gland development and disease: from stem cell to hormone production. Pérez-Millán, M; Zeidler, MG; Saunders, TL; Camper, SA; Davis, SW. Efficient, specific, developmentally appropriate cre-mediated recombination in anterior pituitary gonadotropes and thyrotropes. The pituitary gland plays a critical role in regulating a wide range of physiological processes, including reproduction, growth, metabolism, and stress response. These processes are regulated through the secretion of hormones that affect specific target organs such as the liver, thyroid, and gonads. The postnatal subplate layer in mouse contains neurons with expression of the presynaptic protein complexin 3 (Cplx3), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), the orphan nuclear receptor Nr4a2 (Nurr1), and the G-protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (Lpar1/Edg2). Cells born on E14 are destined for the future marginal zone, whereas cells born on E15 eventually contribute to both marginal zone and subplate zone (Rickmann et al. Some cells located in the late embryonic or postnatal rat subplate zone are also generated after E15 (Rickmann et al. Furthermore, Bayer and Altman (1990) followed the distribution of E14-born neurons in the lateral embryonic cortex and concluded that they are dispersed in the cortical plate at E16 but aggregate at the lower edge of the cortical plate by E17 and form a separate band below the cortical plate at E18, thereby highlighting that subplate cells may be born early but that the subplate layer is not formed as a cytoarchitectonically distinct structure until after the cortical plate has emerged.All 4 of these molecular markers show layer 6b-restricted expression at young postnatal ages, with CTGF expression being the most widespread in the young postnatal subplate. In the first autoradiographic study in mouse, Smart and Smart (1982) did not report a continued contribution to the marginal zone and subplate layer in their analysis of juvenile (P22) mouse brains.